The range of occupational diseases of divers is very wide.
When diving with scuba, it is possible to get a "local crimp". Mask at a depth under pressure by the pressure of water strongly presses on the face. It is necessary, at the first signs of pressure, to exhale a little air with your nose - into the mask. If you do not pay attention to unpleasant sensations - there may be bruises on the face and in the eyes of the sudoric can break. Not scary, but unpleasant. For prevention after returning to the surface it is better to consult a doctor.
If the diver has been roasting in the sunshine for a long time in the heat during a dive when entering the water, the symptoms of overheating may develop, namely, headache first, then nausea, in case of severe overheating, loss of consciousness may occur. The poor fellow must get out of the water, give him plenty of food and quickly deliver to the hospital, let the professionals understand if there is anything else besides overheating.
If the diver worked for a long time in the cool water, there is a danger of hypothermia. His limbs begin to grow dumb, a strong chill strikes him. With the continuation of hypothermia, loss of consciousness is possible. The diver must be delivered on board, released from the wetsuit, pounded, given a warm drink and urgently taken to the hospital. For professionals to understand the causes of poor health is much easier, especially in a hospital.
When diving with an aqualung, if a person has a cold or some middle ear disease, it is easy to get by rising or dipping an ear barotrauma - the intervention of a specialist doctor will be required. When the pressure changes, a person feels pain in the ears. If you can not "blow it out" - it is better to interrupt the dive, otherwise, the pain in the ears can abruptly stop, and it will be replaced by a feeling of coldness in the ear or noise, nausea and dizziness are possible. If this happens, you need to go to the surface and urgently go to the otolaryngologist - perhaps a tympanic membrane has been damaged.
Sometimes a scuba diver begins to feel sick, his head hurts, he breathes often and superficially, a strong sweat is pouring on him. A possible cause is a bad air in the tank. It can be poisoning with carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. We must immediately get out of the water, provide breathing with pure oxygen from the balloon and deliver the person to the hospital as soon as possible.
If the cylinder contains a high content of carbon dioxide, then it may be sufficient to have a prolonged breathing of oxygen. And if there was carbon monoxide in the bottle, then blood purification would be necessary, because carbon monoxide destroys haemoglobin, and the ability of the blood to transfer oxygen sharply decreases - urgent medical intervention is necessary.
This is a case of accidents due to sloppiness. Cylinders should be filled with air only in approved and certified filling stations because any minor error in filling the container when immersed can be deadly.
When immersed in a large depth, it is possible to poison with oxygen - if there is more oxygen in the air mixture than it should be in the mixture at a given pressure. At first, the diver feels a noise in the ears, then the vision becomes a tunnel. Then convulsions begin, and if he dives without a partner, then death awaits him.
A partner should help a friend with signs of oxygen poisoning - it is necessary to climb a few meters until the cramps stop. All this time it is necessary to hold in the mouth of the affected comrade the mouthpiece of the pulmonary automaton, otherwise, he will simply drop it and choke.
After the disappearance of signs of poisoning, it is necessary to interrupt the dive, go up with all the stops necessary for decompression and go to the hospital for examination and possible treatment.
Also, when immersed to a depth of 45 meters, nitrogen poisoning is possible. In this case, the poisoned at first experiences euphoria. Then, as the poisoning increases, tinnitus, fear and symptoms similar to alcohol intoxication begin. One tester, an expert in diving, and in vodka, said that the sensations he received in the pressure chamber from a 75-meter dive are similar to the sensations of 150 grams of vodka.
Drunk at a depth of over 45 meters - a potential deceased. Therefore, at the first signs of nitrogen poisoning, it is necessary to climb a few meters and not try to continue diving. Upon return to the surface, it is advisable to be examined by a doctor.
At the stage of ascent from a serious depth, divers are threatened with the most dangerous consequences of diving - barotrauma of the lungs and caisson disease.
Barotrauma of the lungs occurs if the diver rises too quickly. In this case, the air expanding in the lungs from the pressure drop tears the lung tissue. Trauma is life-threatening. The victim should be immediately placed in the pressure chamber, ensuring the pressure that was on the dive. Then everything should be done strictly according to the instructions of the specialist doctors.
Such barotrauma happens if a person holding his breath while climbing. If suddenly he started to cough when climbing - we must stop at this depth and clear his throat until a cough stops. Otherwise, on the surface, a person will begin to cough blood, then - a red foam on the lips and death. Such barotrauma is very dangerous.
But not less dangerous and caisson disease (CKD - decompression sickness). Most often it is the caisson that makes the diver stop walking under water, and perhaps - and change the profession. Initially, it does not give strong symptoms, but after a while, a healthy man at once becomes a semi-paralyzed wreck, an invalid, if it remains alive.
When immersed in great depths, the diver breathes strongly compressed air. Nitrogen from the respiratory mixture dissolves in the blood and in the tissues of the body. And if the pressure decreases, if this happens too quickly and it does not manage to escape naturally, this nitrogen becomes superfluous - and gas bubbles appear in the blood, tissues, and joints of a person.
Depending on the severity of the lesion, a pattern on the skin, similar to a marble pattern, may appear, and when pressed, crunching is felt. Or, if the caisson is manifested in serious shape, joints are fractured, arms and legs are numb, in especially strong form - paralysis or even death from the embolism.
Possible loss of orientation and nausea, if the hearing organs are affected.
In non-fatal lesions, it is necessary to perform breathing with pure oxygen and to place the person in the pressure chamber as soon as possible, where experts in the caisson disease, assessing the condition of the affected person, choose a schedule of pressure reduction and treatment.
With severe damage, death or an irreversible form of paralysis of the lower extremities and disability is possible. In any case, the further work of a diver for a sick person remains a big question, this will be assessed by a special medical commission based on the results of the treatment. It is more likely that the sick person will not be able to lower deeply under the water.
Tanks of dirt are not afraid, yes. But we are not tanks. Even tough guys have to comply very carefully with safety requirements. Especially when diving to a greater depth.